Construction of structures on saline soils

by V. P. Petrukhin

Publisher: A.A. Balkema in Rotterdam, Brookfield

Written in English
Published: Pages: 255 Downloads: 299
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Subjects:

  • Soil mechanics.,
  • Foundations.,
  • Earthwork.,
  • Soils, Salts in.
  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographical references.

    StatementV.P. Petrukhin ; [translator, N.K. Mehta].
    SeriesRussian translations series -- 101
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsTA710 .P4813 1993
    The Physical Object
    Paginationviii, 255 p. :
    Number of Pages255
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL20811991M
    ISBN 109054102136

  symposium on airfield construction on overseas soils. section ii. paper no. airfield construction on overseas soils. part 3: saline calcareous soils; part 4: alluvial sands and silts. The saturated soils are too weak to withstand the high contact pressures of earthwork construction equipment. The strength or stability of the soil may be increased by lowering the water table and the degree of saturation of the soil. In some cases this may be accomplished by installing ditches, either permanent or temporary, prior to construction. um, saline soils generally are flocculat- ed. Their tillage properties and per- meability to water therefore are equal to or higher than those of similar non- saline soils. The abnormally high salt concentration of the soil solution of saline soils, however, reduces the rate at which plants absorb water; conse-quently growth is retarded. The retar-. CONTENTS Preface xi Acknowledgments xiii How to Use This Book xv Chapter 1. Conversion Factors for Civil Engineering Practice 1 Chapter 2. Beam Formulas 11 Continuous Beams / 11 Ultimate Strength of Continuous Beams / 46 Beams of Uniform Strength / 52 Safe Loads for Beams of Various Types / 53 Rolling and Moving Loads / 53 Curved Beams / 65 Elastic Lateral Buckling of Beams /

Contractors use the surveyor’s marks to verify the horizontal and vertical location to the construction plans. Soil Testing: Soil testing is a vital important task that needs to be done before the site is purchased. The composition of the soil must be known so as to examine the ability to withstand structure and to test the ability to absorb. These geotechnical engineering standards allow engineering firms and construction companies to examine the elastic characteristics, flow, and erosion behavior of the said earth materials to ensure safety and prevent unforeseen hazards related to the erection of civil structures. Figure 9 – Soil dispersion test - Example of soils that do not disperse (left) and that highly disperse (right) – Source: Soil Types and Structures Module DEPI, Victoria [View larger image] 3. Soil dispersion test – in jar. Another test can be done to determine whether a soil . Background. Soils harbour high diversity of obligate as well as facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that contribute significantly to CO 2 dynamics in soil. In this study, we used culture dependent and independent methods to assess the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophs in agricultural and coastal barren saline soils (low and high salinity).

flocculation or plugging of the soil pores • Expressed as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) – Proportion of sodium to calcium + magnesium – SAR values: are low, are high – Clay soils are affected at lower SAR values than are more sandy soils • At the same SAR, highly saline water degrades soils less than water with low salinity.   Reclamation of saline soils Saline soils cannot be reclaimed by any chemical amendment, conditioner or fertilize. Only leaching can remove salts from the plant root zone. The amount of water necessary is related to the initial salt level in the soil, final salt level desired and the quality of the irrigation water. 5.   This chapter presents the importance of geotechnical engineering on the site selection, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of earth-rock dams and earth structures; it emphasizes the geotechnical engineering work related to dam safety during the operation stage. Preliminary geological studies required to select the best dam site are described first.   This method places soil fill on-site to pre-consolidate existing soil prior to construction. Surcharging improves soils via compression, increasing stiffness and shear strength. Preloading is best suited for soft, fine-grained soils that will experience excessive settlement under a structure’s load.

Construction of structures on saline soils by V. P. Petrukhin Download PDF EPUB FB2

This book identifies and describes problems associated with using structurally unstable saline soils in engineering projects. This book contains 8 chapters. Special attention is given to recent investigations on pile foundations and methods of compacting saline soils. The results of studies on the deformation of saline soil masses are by: 9.

Book Description. A translation of "Stroitel Stvo Sooruzhenii na Zasolennykh Gruntakh", Moscow Improved methods of evaluation of piping deformation of bases, which take into consideration the seepage flow pattern, are discussed.

L. Stupakova, "Classification of saline Construction of structures on saline soils book for road construction," Stroitel'stvo i Arkhitektura Uzbekistana, No. 6 (). Terletskaya, "Prediction of the settlement of hydraulic structures on soils containing gypsum," by: 3.

The problem of saline soils usage in design and construction of roads is of great importance. Saline soils are widely distributed along the coasts of the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian oceans and the majority of seas.

As a foundation of the structure, saline soils are used in Australia, Egypt, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Pakistan,Cited by: 1.

stable soil structure, which slows water drainage. Saline-sodic soils These soils contain large amounts of total soluble salts and greater than 15 percent exchangeable sodium. The pH is generally less than Physical properties of these soils are good as long File Size: KB.

The Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils (Agriculture Handbook No. 60) by Richards, L. (editor) and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at Donald L.

Sparks, in Environmental Soil Chemistry (Second Edition), Saline Soils. Saline soils have traditionally been classified as those in which the EC e of the saturation extract is >4 dS m −1 and ESP saline soils be lowered to 2 dS m −1 as many crops, particularly fruits and ornamentals, can be harmed by salinity in.

2 Availability of an outlet or waterway. Labor availability and cost. The adequacy of existing agronomic or vegetative conservation measures. Determining amounts of runoff for design of SWC structures Characteristics of surface runoff Surface runoff (or simply runoff) is the portion of precipitation that makes its way towards the.

Terrace construction Farming terraced land Stripcropping Rotations Contour tillage and terraces Ill Liming, fertilizing, and manuring Stubble-mulch farming Width of strips Grass waterways Managing stripcropped fields Cover crops Soil-depleting, soil-conserving, and soil-building crops The book demonstrates how the soil system provides many opportunities to see practical applications for principles from such sciences as biology, chemistry, physics, and geology.

Structure. Preventing further intrusion of sea or brackish water of more than µmhos cm-1 into the land is central to reclamation of saline soils.

This is accomplished by construction a band around the periphery of the land. The bund should be at least 3 feet above the highest tide level.

Emphasis is on the properties of the geosynthetics required for design and construction. Dunn i cliff, J. () Reinforced Soil Structures, Vol. I: Design and Construction. Discover the best Soil Science in Best Sellers.

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Leaching works well on saline soils that have good structure and internal drainage. To leach a highly saline soil, you may need to apply as much as 48 acre inches of water. An acre-inch is the volume of water that would cover 1 square acre to a depth of 1 inch (27, gallons).

A site investigation is required for a construction operation. Just how extensive the site investigation is depends on the type of operation and the complexity of the geological conditions.

Generally, subsurface excavations are more extensive than those for construction at the surface, except where very sensitive structures such as nuclear power. The Construction Supervisor who understands these issues does his job better. A bit more understanding of the Proctor test yields some additional information.

Many specification books require the soil to be compacted to 95% of modified Proctor testing (ASTM D ). This standard uses a 10 pound hammer and an 18” drop. Soil is a naturally occurring mixture of mineral and organic ingredients with a definite form, structure, and composition. The exact composition of soil changes from one location to another.

The following is the average composition by volume of the major soil ingredients: 45%. nature of the soils at a proposed site for design and construction. A soil investigation needs careful planning and is usually done in phases.

A number of tools are available for soil exploration. You need to use judgment as to the type appropriate for a given project. WHY FIELD TESTS. Sampling disturbances and sample preparation for lab. Soil salinity and alkalinity has many adverse effects, some important effects are as under: (a) Soil fertility is reduced which results in crop failure.

Cultivation is not possible on saline soils unless they are flushed out with large quantities of irrigation water to leach out the salts. 0b) Choice of crops is limited because some crops are sensitive to salinity and alkalinity. In some clays, swelling caused due to the reduction of stress, is so dangerous that it disturb roadways or structures.

If swelling is restricted by construction, extremely large forces may develop and soils are said to be swelling behavior causes volume changes which can lead to extensive damages to civil engineering infrastructures; light weight structures, shallow foundations. In contrast to saline soils, sodic soils have excessive levels of sodium (Na+) adsorbed at the cation exchange sites (Figure 3).

Soil sodicity causes degradation of soil structure. That process is called soil dispersion. Figure 3. Example of a sodic soil aggregate with more than 15 percent of its cation exchange sites occupied by sodium ions.

By contrast, soil built on a bedrock of clay will swell from retaining water in rain and cause a home's foundation to shift and crack. In construction, technology allows builders to correct problems caused by clay soil.

But it is far less expensive to build on soil that is already good for supporting buildings. Methods of Tunnel Construction. The method of Tunnel construction adopted for a project depends on various factors. Tunnel construction and Tunnel Engineering is considered to be one of the most sophisticated and specialized art in the field of Civil ictable ground conditions, environmental requirements and geological factors makes Tunneling a challenging job.

Any activity that exposes soil to wind and rain can lead to soil loss. Farming, construction and development, and mining are among the main activities that impact soil resources. Farming Farming is very important to society because almost all of the world’s food is grown on farms. Over years humans have been.

Permeability of the Local Saline-Alkali Soil. Permeability coefficients of surface saline-alkali soil at 30 cm depth and 60 cm depth are × 10 −5 cm/s, × 10 −6 cm/s, and × 10 −7 cm/s, respectively.

Surface soil has looser structures and well permeability because of farming. Leaching works well on saline soils that have good structure and internal drainage. To leach a highly saline soil, you may need to apply as much as 48 acre-inches of water.

An acre-inch is the volume of water that would cover 1 square acre to a depth of 1 inch (27, gallons). Clay is a very important material in geotechnical engineering, because it is often observed in geotechnical engineering practice. Generally, this soil type has numerous problems due to its low strength, high compressibility and high level of volumetric changes.

Clay needs to be improved before it can be used in road construction, dams, slurry walls, airports and waste landfills. saline soils to improve the soil properties for landscaping and soil erosion purposes.

The level of gypsum applied should be taken into account when designing concrete structures. Chlorides do not react chemically with concrete. However, wetting and drying cycles, changes in humidity and temperature, can result in the formation of salt crystals. Consolidation of Soil and Settlement of Structures *From D.

McCarthy, Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations, 6th ed., Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ. any loading larger than the present effective overburden pressure. Laterite soils are normally infertile; however, it is widely to make bricks (used in building construction).

Normally sandy in structure and saline in nature, arid soils vary from red to brown in color. Arid Soils. Lower horizons of the arid soils are occupied by ‘kankar’ layers because of the increasing calcium content downwards.

Enter Keyword, Phrase, or Text to search the site. Browse By Audience | A-Z Index | Help; You are Here: Home / Soil Survey / Soil Surveys by State.Existing Structures Additions Topography, Geology, Hydrology, and Geomancy Topography Geology Hydrology Geomancy References The stability and performance of a structure founded on soil depend on the subsoil conditions, ground surface features, type of construction, and sometimes the mete-orological changes.structures within feet of the project area.

Any resident or owner of a dwelling or structure that is outside of this radius may request a pre-construction survey at their own expense. Also, any owner or resident of a structure which has a pre-construction survey .